Top 10 sjukdomar

Posted in Allmänt by kaptenkrut on oktober 8, 2009

Nu listar vi de 10 konstigaste sjukdomarna vi kunde hitta. Tyvärr var det svårt att hitta fakta om dom på svenska så har använt oss av den engelska wikipedian för att få fram fakta om sjukdomarna. Vissa bilder värre än andra men mycket intressant läsning, saker man aldrig sett eller hört talas om någonsin. Hittade en massa olika top 10 listor men tänkte att jag gör min egna på dessa olika sjukdomar: Elephantiasis, Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria, Werewolf Syndrome, Blue Skin Disorder, Blaschko’s lines, Microcephaly, Smallpox, Morgellons, Paraneoplastic pemphigus, Walking Corpse Syndrome.

10. Elephantiasis

Lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis, is best known from dramatic photos of people with grossly enlarged or swollen arms and legs. The disease is caused by parasitic worms, including Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and B. timori, all transmitted by mosquitoes. Lymphatic filariasis currently affects 120 million people worldwide, and 40 million of these people have serious disease. When an infected female mosquito bites a person, she may inject the worm larvae, called microfilariae, into the blood. The microfilariae reproduce and spread throughout the bloodstream, where they can live for many years. Often disease symptoms do not appear until years after infection. As the parasites accumulate in the blood vessels, they can restrict circulation and cause fluid to build up in surrounding tissues. The most common, visible signs of infection are excessively enlarged arms, legs, genitalia, and breasts.

9. Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria

Usually known as just Progeria, this condition is one that only affects one in about 8 million children born. Most born with the condition only live to be about 13, while others have been able to live into their early twenties. Progeria is a genetic condition that occurs due to a new mutation characterized by the dramatic, rapid appearance of aging beginning in childhood. In most cases, the disease is not inherited, though there has been a case of a similar condition where the parents carry the protein genetically and then pass it on to their children. There is no cure for Progeria, though doctors have tried growth hormone treatment as well as anticancer drugs. Usually doctors try to focus on reducing complications of the disease.

8. Werewolf Syndrome

Hypertrichosis specifically refers to hair density or length beyond the accepted limits of normal for a particular age, race, or sex, and may be generalized or localized, and may be lanugo, vellus, or terminal hair. Restated, hypertrichosis is an overgrowth of hair in areas that are not androgen-dependent areas of the skin.

Several circus side show performers in the 19th and early 20th centuries suffered from hypertrichosis. They were usually displayed as ”freaks” and promoted as if they had distinct human and animal traits. Among the most well known of such performers were Stephan Bibrowski (billed as Lionel the Lion-Faced Man), and Fedor Jeftichew (known as Jo-Jo the Dog-Faced Boy).
More extensive cases of hypertrichosis have been called werewolf syndrome.

7. Blue Skin Disorder

When there is a lack of oxygen or when there is abnormality in the hemoglobin level or even in case of the presence of toxins in the body, cyanosis occurs. Usually cyanosis is noticed in people who suffer from any heart disease. The blue skin disorder is usually linked to the occurrence of a disease of the lungs or even a heart disease. If a person is suffering from a mild form of cyanosis, then it is usually difficult to detect since the blood is not significantly darkened for this to manifest itself in the color of the skin. In such cases, Cyanosis can be detected by studying the nails, feet, nose and ears of people. This medical condition can be observed in these parts of the body. Some people notice a sudden painful change of color. This is usually noticed in their fingers and causes the skin on the fingers to suddenly change to a shade between blue and purple.
Although Cyanosis is basically caused by pulmonary diseases or even due to pneumonia, it can also be caused by a short term exposure to the cold. In some cases shock or even holding the breath can cause Cyanosis. Some people react to high altitudes by showing the symptoms of Cyanosis. If you have suffered from Cyanosis after going out in the cold, then dressing in warm clothes is advisable when venturing outside. If the symptoms seem very serious then you should consult your physician. In cases of shortness of breath, oxygen may be administered. This will provide relief to the person suffering from Cyanosis. Blue skin disease can be treated and people suffering from this condition should ensure that they take every possible precaution.

6. Blaschko’s lines

Blaschko’s lines, also called the Lines of Blaschko, are skin lines invisible under normal conditions. They become apparent when some diseases of the skin or mucosa manifest themselves according to these patterns. They follow a ”V” shape over the back, ”S” shaped whorls over the chest, stomach, and sides, and wavy shapes on the head.

The lines are believed to trace the migration of embryonic cells. The stripes are a type of genetic mosaicism. They do not correspond to nervous, muscular, or lymphatic systems. The lines can be observed in other animals such as cats and dogs.
German dermatologist Alfred Blaschko is credited for the first demonstration of these lines in 1901.

5. Microcephaly

Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder in which the circumference of the head is more than two standard deviations smaller than average for the person’s age and sex. Microcephaly may be congenital or it may develop in the first few years of life. The disorder may stem from a wide variety of conditions that cause abnormal growth of the brain, or from syndromes associated with chromosomal abnormalities. Two copies of a loss-of-function mutation in one of the microcephalin genes causes primary microcephaly.

In general, life expectancy for individuals with microcephaly is reduced and the prognosis for normal brain function is poor. The prognosis varies depending on the presence of associated abnormalities.

Microcephaly is a type of cephalic disorder. This is a disorder characterized by a small head and may be caused by a disturbance in the rapid growing of nerve cells. Microcephaly may also be associated with maternal problems such as alcoholism (which can result in the fetal alcohol syndrome disability), diabetes, or rubella (German measles). After the dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a large percentage of women who had been pregnant at the time gave birth to children with microcephaly. A genetic factor may play a role in causing some cases of microcephaly. Affected newborns generally have striking neurological defects and seizures. Severely impaired intellectual development is common, but disturbances in motor functions may not appear until later in life.

4. Smallpox

Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning spotted, or varus, meaning ”pimple”. The term ”smallpox” was first used in Europe in the 15th century to distinguish variola from the ”great pox” (syphilis).

Smallpox localizes in small blood vessels of the skin and in the mouth and throat. In the skin, this results in a characteristic maculopapular rash, and later, raised fluid-filled blisters. V. major produces a more serious disease and has an overall mortality rate of 30–35%. V. minor causes a milder form of disease (also known as alastrim, cottonpox, milkpox, whitepox, and Cuban itch) which kills about 1% of its victims. Long-term complications of V. major infection include characteristic scars, commonly on the face, which occur in 65–85% of survivors. Blindness resulting from corneal ulceration and scarring, and limb deformities due to arthritis and osteomyelitis are less common complications, seen in about 2–5% of cases.

Smallpox is believed to have emerged in human populations about 10,000 BC. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans each year during the 18th century (including five monarchs), and was responsible for a third of all blindness. Of all those infected, 20–60%—and over 80% of infected children—died from the disease.

During the 20th century, it is estimated that smallpox was responsible for 300–500 million deaths.[7][8][9] In the early 1950s an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year. As recently as 1967, the World Health Organization estimated that 15 million people contracted the disease and that two million died in that year. After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in December 1979. To this day, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated.

3. Morgellons

Morgellons (also called Morgellons disease or Morgellons syndrome), is a name given in 2002 by Mary Leitao to a proposed condition referred to by the Centers for Disease Control as Unexplained Dermopathy and characterized by a range of cutaneous (skin) symptoms including crawling, biting, and stinging sensations; finding fibers on or under the skin; and persistent skin lesions (e.g., rashes or sores). Current scientific consensus holds that Morgellons is not a new disorder and is instead a new and misleading name for known illnesses. Most doctors, including dermatologists and psychiatrists, regard Morgellons as a manifestation of known medical conditions, including delusional parasitosis, although some health professionals believe that Morgellons disease is a specific condition likely to be confirmed by future research.

Despite the lack of evidence that Morgellons is a novel or distinct condition and the absence of any agreed set of diagnostic symptoms, the Morgellons Research Foundation and self-diagnosed Morgellons patients have successfully lobbied members of Congress and the U.S. government’s Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to investigate the proposed condition. The CDC states that while it is not known at present whether the condition represents a new disease entity, or whether persons who identify themselves as having Morgellons have a common cause for their symptoms, share common risk factors, or are contagious, it has begun an epidemiological investigation of the ”Unexplained Dermopathy (aka ‘Morgellons’).”

2. Paraneoplastic pemphigus

Though there are many forms of pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus is the least common and most serious. PNP is a rare autoimmune bullous disease that causes blistering. Keratinocytes, which are what make up the epidemus, separate from each other, leaving gaps. Many times the gaps become filled with fluid peel off, leaving the skin raw and open to infection. These blisters usually appear in the mouth, throat, lips, and random places on the skin. The disease is also extremely fatal, as 90% of those diagnosed with the disease die due to sepsis, multi-organ failure, or cancer that caused the disease.

Pemphigus is a rare group of autoimmune blistering diseases that affect the skin and mucous membranes.
In pemphigus, autoantibodies form against desmoglein. Desmoglein forms the ”glue” that attaches adjacent epidermal cells via attachment points called desmosomes. When autoantibodies attack desmogleins, the cells become separated from each other and the epidermis becomes ”unglued”, a phenomenon called acantholysis. This causes blisters that slough off and turn into sores. In some cases, these blisters can cover a significant area of the skin.
Originally, the cause of this disease was unknown, and Pemphigus was used to refer to any blistering disease of the skin and mucosa. In 1964, a historic paper that changed the understanding of pemphigus was published. In 1971, an article investigating the autoimmune nature of this disease was published.

1. Cotard delusion (Walking Corpse Syndrome, they believe to have died)

The Cotard delusion or Cotard’s syndrome, also known as nihilistic or negation delusion, is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that they are dead, do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs. Rarely, it can include delusions of immortality.

The syndrome is named after Jules Cotard (1840–1889), a French neurologist who first described the condition, which he called le délire de négation (”negation delirium”), in a lecture in Paris in 1880. He described the syndrome as having degrees of severity that range from mild to severe. Despair and self-loathing characterize a mild state. Someone suffering the severe state begins to deny the very existence of the self.
In this lecture, Cotard described a patient with the pseudonym of Mademoiselle X, who denied the existence of God, the Devil, several parts of her body, and her need to eat. Later she believed she was eternally damned and could no longer die a natural death.

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